EXAMPLE 2: Identify the different elements of a specific policy question against the impact pathway and break them down into sub-questions

Have investments (input) in WASH interventions (activity) led to better access to WASH facilities (output), resulted in a reduction in % of children suffering from diarrhoea (outcome) and reduced child undernutrition (impact)?

1. Break the question down into more specific questions to better understand the intermediate steps of the impact pathway.
For example:

  • Have investments in WASH interventions changed over the past 5 years?
  • How are investments in WASH interventions distributed at sub-national level?
  • Has coverage in WASH interventions changed over the past 5 years?
  • Are WASH interventions reaching the target populations?
  • Have WASH interventions led to improved access to latrines/access to safe drinking water?

2. Unpack the question to identify the indicators, the relationship between the indicators and any assumptions, in order to generate more specific questions that can be answered by the data available.
For example:

  • Indicators can be investments or programme coverage.
  • A relationship is: “WASH investment leads to increased WASH programme coverage.”
  • An assumption is: “WASH investments translate directly into increased programme coverage.”

3. Zoom in on a specific question and unpack it further.
For example:

  • The latest assumption can in turn become a question to be unpacked into further questions: “WASH investments translate directly into increased programme coverage.”
  • Have investments in WASH translated into equal budget expenditures at regional/department level for WASH interventions?
  • In which WASH interventions have investments been made at regional level? What was the distribution of budgets across regions?
  • Has staff been hired, trained and supervised in each region equally? Were supplies and equipment equally available in each region to achieve planned coverage?
  • etc.
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